Consumer Animosity Following International Crisis: A Conceptual Framework to Understand Indonesian Consumers’ Attitude towards Australian Products

  •  Daniel Koh    


Over the past three decades, the topic of consumer animosity has attracted the interest of academics, researchers,and policy makers. Researchers have attempted to understand the underlying constructs that lead to consumer’sanimosity using conceptual models to explain antecedents and consequences of consumer’s animosity. Thisstudy revisits the social construct of individualism-collectivism and further refines the model with an additionalpsychological construct–the level of tolerance. The framework proposes that (i) individualistic-collectivisticbehaviour in high-low cosmopolitanism society affects the sensitivity of consumers’ animosity and (ii)consumers’ distinct, non-bipolar affinity expressed through level of tolerance interacts with consumers’animosity to create a net willingness to buy foreign products from hostile nation. It then ends with somemanagerial implications, along with some possible avenues of further research.


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