Internal Push Factors and External Pull Factors and Their Relationships with Lecturers’ Turnover Intention

  •  Sudhashini Nair    
  •  Lim Yet Mee    
  •  Aik Nai Cheik    


The globalization of the higher education has resulted in the rise of private universities in Malaysia. As it is the aim of the country to be an international hub for higher education, the role of lecturers has become pivotal in the success of this industry. Literature has indicated that internal push factors such as role stress factors and attraction to various external factors may have a significant effect on employees’ turnover intention. This study examines the impact of three internal push factors--role overload, role ambiguity, role conflict--and four external pull factors--job opportunity, compensation, working location, and university image--on lecturers’ turnover intention. Data were obtained from 401 lecturers of private universities via self-administered questionnaires and were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results of this study reveal that internal role overload, role ambiguity, role conflict and external working location have a significant relationship with lecturers’ turnover intention respectively. The findings indicate that internal push factors play a much more significant role than external pull factors on lecturers’ turnover intention. Implications of the research findings were discussed.

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