Examination of Cultural and Gender Similarities and Differences among Canadian and U.S. College Students on a Measure of Manifest Anxiety

  •  Patricia A. Lowe    


A measurement invariance study was conducted among 1,344 college students from Canada and the United States on an anxiety measure specifically designed for the college student population to determine whether the construct of anxiety was equivalent across country (Canada, United States) and gender. In addition, country and gender differences were examined on the anxiety measure. The Adult Manifest Anxiety Scale-College Version (AMAS-C) was administered to the college students online. The AMAS-C consists of four anxiety (Physiological Anxiety, Social Concerns/Stress, Test Anxiety, and Worry/Oversensitivity) subscales, a Total Anxiety scale, and a Lie scale. Results of tests of measurement invariance found the construct of anxiety equivalent across country and gender and latent mean analyses found gender differences, but no country differences, on the AMAS-C anxiety factors. Implications of the findings for mental health professionals, educational practitioners, and current and future researchers who work with or who will work with the undergraduate student population in Canada are discussed.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1925-4741
  • ISSN(Online): 1925-475X
  • Started: 2011
  • Frequency: quarterly

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