Comparing the Costs and Benefits of Attending the Top Three U.S. Elementary Teacher Education Programs

  •  Mohammed Sabrin    


This paper analyzed the costs and benefits of attending the top three U.S. elementary teacher education programs by examining how much emphasis is on general content knowledge (GCK), as opposed to general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), as opposed to methodological pedagogical knowledge (MPK), and how this ratio might have affected student outcomes on TIMSS compared to the top performing TIMSS countries in Europe and Asia. Three theoretical frames of reference guided this analysis: program model, field experience model, and status of teacher in society. Methodologically, this study relied mainly on peer-reviewed literature published between 2000 and 2016 in the English language. It was found that although the ratio of GCK to GPK to MPK in the top three U.S. TED programs was similar to what has been reported about the top performing TIMSS countries, student outcomes on TIMSS don’t seem to have been affected due to the fact that performance on TIMSS seems to be stemming mainly from having a very rigorous K-12 education and only admitting the top academic achievers into TED programs. 

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