Synthesis and Model Development of Thai Undergraduate Dropout Risk Factors

  •  Timothy Scott    
  •  Poonpilas Asavisanu    


This study synthesizes existing research to explore factors affecting student attrition in Thai higher education institutions and develop a causal model for dropout risk. The synthesis uses a mixed-method approach following PRISMA 2020 guidelines, drawing on six years of Thai contextual studies on student attrition, academic intention, commitment, and persistence. Through a systematic review of multiple databases, 21 quantitative or mixed-method studies were identified for inclusion, which yielded 107 items representing 186 occurrences related to student dropout or persistence factors in Thai higher education. These items were grouped into nine clusters: academic integration, attitudinal and behavioral factors, classroom and institutional environment, emotional distress, family support, financial considerations, institutional support, social integration, and student satisfaction. The model synthesizes research findings on student attrition in Thai universities, providing a comprehensive framework for understanding the factors influencing students' persistence and dropout risk. By considering the interplay between these factors, the model aids in developing targeted interventions and informed policy decisions that promote academic success and ensure the long-term efficacy of Thai higher education institutions. The model's application can potentially guide researchers, educators, and policymakers in addressing the challenges students face within the Thai higher education system, ultimately fostering a more supportive and conducive environment for academic achievement.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.