Optimization of the Rheological and Sensory Properties of Stirred Yogurt as Affected by Chemical Composition and Heat Treatment of Buffalo Milk

  •  Dimitris Petridis    
  •  Georgia Dimitreli    
  •  Stella Chrysalidou    
  •  Pantelina Akakiadou    


The effects of fat content and the supplementation of milk with Sodium Caseinates (SCN) and Whey Proteins Concentrates (WPC) on the rheological and sensory properties of stirred yogurt made from buffalo milk were investigated. Whether the heat treatment of the milk affected the rheological behavior and the sensory characteristics of the samples was also evaluated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to assess in detail the relative contribution of whey proteins, caseins and fat on the rheological properties and sensory characteristics of the samples. Furthermore, it related the instrumental and objective sensory data to consumer perception (hedonic response of non-trained panelists). The objective acidity and white color intensity were positively correlated and increased with increasing casein content. Fat interacted synergistically with caseins to increase all the hedonic attributes, apart from odor. As far as rheological properties are concerned, elastic modulus (G'), instantaneous elasticity (Gg), retarded elasticity (GR) and Newtonian viscosity (?0) were positively correlated with increasing casein content. However, tan ? was negatively correlated with the aforesaid attributes and increased with increasing fat content. Whey proteins in the presence of fat determined the magnitude of flow behavior index (n). The lactic acid concentration (%) and the b component of color (yellow color intensity) were affected positively by SCN and WPC addition but in the absence of fat. In all regression equations the effect of process temperature was found to be insignificant. Finally, the consumer-optimized composition of the fat and the added SCN can be used to formulate a marketable product.

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