Interactive Effects of Goal Orientation and Perceived Competence on Enjoyment among Youth Swimmers

  •  Ninoslav Silic    
  •  Kristina Sesar    
  •  Mate Brekalo    


This study investigated achievement goal orientation profile differences between youth swimmers on perceived competence and enjoyment, and the contribution of goal orientation and perceived competence to enjoyment in swimming. Male and female swimmers (n=302), aged 10-18 years (M=12.7; sd=2.25) completed a questionnaire assessing goal orientation, perceived competence and enjoyment in swimming. Cluster analysis revealed four goal orientation profile groups: high task/high ego, moderate task/low ego, high task/moderate ego and low task/moderate ego. MANOVA was conducted and a significant multivariate effect was found (Wilks=0.762; F=14.370; p=0.000; ES=0126). Further, Scheffe’s post-hoc comparisons tests revealed that swimmers scoring relatively high in both task and ego orientations, with a balance between the two, reported high values for perceived competence and enjoyment. Finally using two-way factorial MANOVA it was found that the interaction between the perceived competence and goal orientation profiles was not significant. Emphasizing task orientation for young athletes is a means to increase enjoyment in sport, regardless of their level of perceived competence.

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