Personal and Social Tipping Norms: Race and Sex Differences

  •  Jeremy E. Whaley    
  •  Wanda M. Costen    


Tipping is both a personal and social norm, which can also vary according to the consumer’s racial background and sex. This study investigated the extent to which restaurant guests’ personal and social tipping norms vary based on race (White vs. Africa American) and sex. The researchers used a consumer panel comprised of 623 participants in 2016. A two-by-two ANOVA was conducted to examine race and sex effects on personal and social tipping norms. The results demonstrated both main and interaction effects of race and sex in personal and social tipping norms. Based on the results, the researchers discuss implications for scholars, restaurant owners, and managers.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1918-719X
  • ISSN(Online): 1918-7203
  • Started: 2009
  • Frequency: quarterly

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