Elementary and Junior High School Teachers’ Promotion of Self-Determination in Taiwan

  •  Pen-Chiang Chao    
  •  Yu-Chi Chou    


instruction is implemented by elementary and junior high school teachers; (b)examine the frequency with which the components of self-determination are taught; and (c)investigate whether teachers’ gender, class setting, and teaching experience affect their classroom practices regarding the promotion of self-determination. The participants were 1,039 teachers recruited from elementary and junior high schools nationwide in Taiwan using a random sampling method. The Teaching Self-Determination Scale (TSDS) was used to gauge the extent to which educators teach knowledge and skills related to self-determination. Descriptive statistics, analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) were employed to analyze data collected. Findings showed that more than half of the teachers surveyed reported having often or always provided instruction to promote students’ self-determination. The most frequently taught skills are related to Psychological Empowerment (self-advocacy skills, expecting positive outcomes), while the least frequently taught skills were primarily located in the domain of Self-Regulation (goal setting and problem solving skills). Furthermore, our findings showed that teachers’ gender, class setting, and teaching experience were factors attecting the extent to which teachers delivered instruction to promote self-determination. Female teachers exhibited higher levels of implementation with respect to self-determination instruction. Teachers in general education classrooms showed significantly higher levels of applied self-determination instruction, followed by resource room teachers and self-contained classroom teachers. Additionally, teachers with more teaching experiences more frequently employed instructional activities promoting self-determination. Suggestions and implications are provided.

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