Analysing the Shadows: Private Tutoring as a Descriptor of the Education System in Georgia

  •  Tamar Bregvadze    


During the past decade Georgia has received strong international support for education reform, and it represents an interesting case by which the effectiveness of particular interventions in the region can be assessed. Most attempts to analyse progress within the system have so far been concentrated on two aspects of formal education: private and public schools. This article analyses the dynamics of change from a different angle, and focuses attention on a third important, but shadow aspect of the education system: supplementary private tutoring. A representative survey of parents of school-age children and university entrants describes the scope, drivers and effects of private tutoring in Georgia. These findings are then used to analyse the effectiveness of the system in terms of the criteria of quality and equity.

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