Concept of Supervision and Supervisory Practices at Primary Level in Pakistan

  •  Malik Ghulam Behlol    
  •  Muhammad Imran Yousuf    
  •  Qaisara Parveen    
  •  Muhammad Munir Kayani    


The study was conducted to find out the practices and problems of supervisors working at primary school level in Pakistan. The teachers, Headmasters, Area Education Officers, District Education Officers, Deputy District Education officers working in primary schools of Rawalpindi District were the population of the study. The questionnaire was developed, validated by the experts and pilot tested. Stratified Random sampling technique was used to collect the data of the study. The conclusions of the study reveal that the supervisors don’t visit schools to facilitate teachers in solving classroom problems. They behave with them in an autocratic and authoritarian way, and the teachers are not able to share theirs problems with them. They do not believe in the concept of supervision as a process of sharing, helping, guiding, counseling and motivating teachers to solve problems which they face while teaching in classroom. Questioning and creative ideas are taken as breach of discipline. It is also revealed that the majority of the Head of institutions are not competent enough to guide their staff to perform the educational activities in the classroom. They neither delegate the responsibilities to the staff nor involve them in decision making process. As a result, the team members will not put their all out efforts in the activity and take it as burden. It is recommended that a training programme for the supervisors working at Primary level may be designed and lunched to improve their knowledge, skills and attitude to perform their duties as a facilitator, guide, motivator, helper and the leader of the team. The procedure of departmental promotion may be revised and over all competency and skills required for the performance of task as a supervisor/Headmaster/Principal should be given due importance.

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