Developing a Higher Order Thinking Skills Module for Weak ESL Learners

  •  Charanjit Singh    
  •  Rhasvinder Singh    
  •  Tarsame Singh    
  •  Nor Mostafa    
  •  Tunku Mohtar    


The problem of mastering English does not involve students alone. The English language teachers, policy makers and curriculum developers are also affected. Thus, teachers have resorted to using higher order thinking skills (HOT) as a means to teach writing to weak ESL learners. The study aimed at developing and validating a higher order thinking skills module for teaching writing to weak ESL learners. It employed a qualitative research paradigm using documents analysis, interviews, observations and validation form. It was conducted in two phases. The first phase was completed with needs analysis specifically identifying problems teachers faced in teaching writing using higher order thinking skills in six selected secondary schools. The ADDIE model approach was used by the ESL teachers and experts in HOTs to create the module content. In the second phase, the teachers were observed ten times to investigate the effectiveness of using the HOTs module developed for teaching writing. The findings revealed that the HOTs module served as a guideline for the teachers in applying and integrating thinking skills in the process of teaching writing. These findings were used to guide decisions on implementing the appropriate teaching pedagogy to apply HOTS for teaching writing.

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