A Systematic Review of Research on Questioning as a High-level Cognitive Strategy

  •  Mohammad Davoudi    
  •  Narges Sadeghi    


Given the significance of questioning as a high-level cognitive strategy in language teaching and learning in the literature on TEFL as well as in education in general, this study sought to make a systematic review of research studies conducted in the span of the last three decades on the issue of questioning across different disciplines with a special focus on second or foreign language teaching and learning. It encompasses the questioning behavior of both teachers and learners. In the first phase of the study, it reviews and synthesizes the findings of 60 studies conducted on questioning in education since 1974. It also illustrates the impact of different questioning patterns on various types of learning and literacy areas. In the second phase of the study, an in-depth review is made of 40 studies between 2000 and 2014 examining the role of questioning in different academic fields and various educational fields. The findings of the in-depth review reveal the indispensable role of teacher and student questioning in facilitating critical thinking, writing ability, reading comprehension, subject matter learning, metacognitive skills, and scaffolding learning process. Finally, the implications and applications of the research findings are mentioned along with suggestions for further research.

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