Multivariate Effects of Level of Education, Computer Ownership, and Computer Use on Female Students’ Attitudes towards CALL

  •  Mehrak Rahimi    
  •  Samaneh Yadollahi    


The aim of this study was investigating Iranian female students’ attitude towards CALL and its relationship with their level of education, computer ownership, and frequency of use. One hundred and forty-two female students (50 junior high-school students, 49 high-school students and 43 university students) participated in this study. They filled in A-CALL questionnaire that assessed their attitudes towards CALL with respect to four factors: effectiveness of CALL vs. non-CALL, surplus value of CALL, teacher influence, and degree of exhibition to CALL. The findings revealed that the sample had a general positive attitude towards CALL while they showed the highest positive attitudes towards teacher influence and the lowest positive attitudes towards effectiveness of CALL vs. non-CALL. Students’ attitude toward CALL across level of education was found to be significantly different just in degree of exhibition to CALL; while university students had the highest level of positive attitudes in this regard. Further, computer ownership could make a difference in students’ attitude towards teacher influence. No statistically significant difference was found between the attitudes of those students who used computer more frequently and those students who did not use it quite often.

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