Comprehensive Bicubic Formalism of Ordinary and Novel (dm) Particles With Substituted Virtual Novel Electron Describing the Bohr Atom
- Josip Soln
Abstract
The particle limiting velocity solutions from the bicubic limiting velocity equation ( Soln, J., 2021.1.2, 2022) have been very useful in carrying out parallel studies of ordinary and novel particles. This study is facilitated with the help of evolutionary congruent parameters, ordinaryz1 ⪯ 1, novel z2 = 1/z1 ⪰ 1 and congruent phase-angle α ⪯ π/2. At smooth matching point z1 = z2 = 1 and α = π/2, there is no physical difference between an ordinary and novel particle as they have the same limiting velocities. At α = π/3 ≺ π/2, they have already different limiting velocities with different other physical characteristics. Ordinary photon γ and novel doubly photon γN are indistinguishable at α = π/2, while at α = π/3 ≺ π/2, they are already physically different. That applies to any other particle, ordinary proton p versus novel proton pN, etc. Through trial and error, one finds that c3 the ordinary particle limiting velocity solution has ratio value of 1 at the comprehensive congruent phase-angle αO = π/5.1 = 0.616 which an ordinary particle of velocity v can satisfy at v ≃ c3, in fact, defining the value of c3. The quantum jump from the ordinary particle comprehensive congruent phase-angle αO to the novel particle comprehensive congruent phase-angle αN = 2αO = 2π/5.1 = 1.232 yields novel particle limiting velocity solution doubly Rc1,3 with ratio value of 1 which a novel particle velocity vN can satisfy with doublyRc1,3 ≃ vN, simply defining the value of doubly Rc1,3. This comprehensive quantum jump with fixed comprehensive congruent phase-angles αO and αN apply to any free and interacting ordinary particle (γ, e, ν,etc.) when connecting to the corresponding free and interacting novel particle (γN, eN, νN, etc.). Concerning the Bohr’s atom, we wish to address the question of negative energy electron e emitting positive energy radiation. To this end we simply substitute e with the virtual novel electron eN with the same radius r and velocity v. This virtual eN, due to the Coulomb potential energy V from the sitting proton p plus the centrifugal force, with the quantized orbital virtual novel electron angular momentum yields the positive virtual novel electron energy in the bicubic formalism. The frequencies of emitted radiation from virtual novel electron is practically the same as from the negative energy electron e.
- Full Text: PDF
- DOI:10.5539/apr.v16n1p286
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