Analysis of Effective Factors on Presence of Citizens in Urban Spaces, Case Study: Towhid Square in Tehran

  •  Amin Khakpour    
  •  Sadegh Sabouri    
  •  Minoo Harirchian    


This study attempts to respond the question that “which factors and indices are effective on citizen’s presence in urban spaces?” This is important because by identifying and analyzing this factors and indices, it could be possible to improve weaknesses and promoting strengths of each urban spaces. In Towhid Square, the inadequate space for citizens and the dominance of car traffic over pedestrians are some of the most reasons of lack of presence of citizens in the square as an urban space. The study is analytic and the data is collected from library and fieldwork. Cochran’s formula is applied to determine sample size which is 149. In the next step, by reviewing literature, indices were extracted. After providing questionnaire based on indices and by Likert Scale, we applied it to the case study and completed the survey. In data analysis, SPSS ®17 software is used and in the final step of analyses, four factors are achieved. The results of the study show, despite the hypotheses, the most important factor of non-presence (in contrast with passing) of citizens in Towhid square is “management” factor which is leading to the creation of other inhibiting elements of citizen’s presence in urban space.

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