Surface Characterization of Cottonseed Meal Products by SEM, SEM-EDS, XRD and XPS Analysis

  •  Zhongqi He    
  •  Huai N. Cheng    
  •  O. Modesto Olanya    
  •  Joseph Uknalis    
  •  Xiaodong Zhang    
  •  Brent D. Koplitz    
  •  Jibao He    


The utilization of cottonseed meal products as valuable industrial materials needs to be exploited. We have recently produced water-washed cottonseed meal, total cottonseed protein, sequentially extracted water- and alkali-soluble proteins, and two residues after the total and sequential protein extractions at a pilot scale. In this work, the surface characteristics of the six cottonseed meal products were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scanning electron microscopy- energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the surface properties of the six products differed from those of a commercial soy protein flour examined comparatively in this work. The compact morphology and relative-high N composition were observed in all three protein products, with greater similarity between the total protein and alkali-soluble protein. The surfaces of the two residue products were more porous with polysaccharide features. Washed cottonseed meal possessed the surface features similar to those of the residues. In the meantime, the N-associated functional groups were under-represented in the surfaces of all samples, compared to their bulk composition. Information derived from this work increased the understanding of the surface functional properties of cottonseed meal products, which would benefit their practical utilization.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1927-0585
  • ISSN(Online): 1927-0593
  • Started: 2012
  • Frequency: quarterly

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