Formulation and Nutritional Analysis of Processed Sorghum, Soybeans, and Mango Complementary Foods
- Mary Nkongho Tanyitiku
- Igor Casimir Njombissie Petcheu
Malnutrition is a major threat to infant health and development in sub-Saharan Africa. With increasing costs in commercial complementary foods, infants in rural communities are often fed with unprocessed nutrient-deficient family staple foods. The aim of this study was to formulate complementary diets from locally cultivated sorghum, soybeans, and mangoes using soaking, toasting, germination, and fermentation processes. Through mass balance, eight formulations were developed, where a Codex Alimentarius recommendation of ≤5.5g protein content per 100kcal of cereals-added high-protein complementary foods was considered. Our results showed that the nutritional compositions of the formulated diets ranged from 4.64-6.44% moisture content, 1.04-1.70% ash content, 10.73-20.02% crude protein, 68.07-80.76% total carbohydrate, 0.07-3.44% crude fat, 1.35-3.40% crude fibre, 364.63-462.80kcal energy, 120.9-131.2mg/100g calcium and 1.02-6.99µg/mg vitamin A. Soaking significantly increased the nutritional value of soybeans and sorghum, and was further increased with subsequent toasting, germination, or fermentation. The functional properties of all formulations were within acceptable limits for complementary feeding as the formulations were less bulky and could easily be cooked into gruels. In addition, trained breastfeeding mothers, who served as sensory panelists, rated the overall acceptability between 7 (like moderately) and 8 (like very much) on the hedonic scale. The formulations did not differ in acceptability in terms of taste, colour, flavour, and smoothness, and those containing toasted soybean flour were rated highest for colour and flavour. This research indicated that nutrient-rich food formulations from locally acquired low-cost sorghum, soybeans, and mangoes could be used extensively in the treatment of child malnutrition in Africa.
- Bella DongEditorial Assistant