Contradictions as Drivers for Improving Inclusion in Teaching Pupils with Special Educational Needs

  •  Birgit Paju    
  •  Anu Kajamaa    
  •  Raija Pirttimaa    
  •  Elina Kontu    


The aim of this paper is to enhance understanding of the contradictions that arise in the drive to improve teaching practices among pupils with special educational needs (SENs). A questionnaire was administrated to 167 classroom teachers, subject teachers, special education teachers and teaching assistants in Finland. The analysis, based on thematic coding and analysis of manifestations of contradictions, revealed contradictions related to artefacts of teaching, participation in the community and school staff’s professional ability to teach SEN pupils in mainstream. Four types of manifestations, namely conflicts, critical conflicts, dilemmas, and double binds, could be identified in the data. Focusing the improvement of inclusive practices on all pupils calls for the collective resolution of contradictions and the development of tools and models that facilitate the educational change.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1927-5250
  • ISSN(Online): 1927-5269
  • Started: 2012
  • Frequency: bimonthly

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