Discipline Disproportionality among Hispanic and American Indian Students: Expanding the Discourse in U.S. Research

  •  Carolyn Brown    
  •  Caterina Di Tillio    


While disproportionality in discipline referrals and discipline action has been fairly well established among
African American students in the United States, especially males in urban school districts, little research has
looked at disproportionality among American Indian and Latino students. This paper uses a large dataset from
the State of Arizona, with rich data on American Indian and Latino students, to explore if and how these students
are being disproportionately referred for discipline and if and how these students are being punished more
harshly for lesser violations than their peers. Results indicate that disproportionality in discipline referrals and in
violation to action relationship for American Indians is on par with those of African Americans. Latino students
were shown to be nearly proportional to their population.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1927-5250
  • ISSN(Online): 1927-5269
  • Started: 2012
  • Frequency: bimonthly

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