The Demand for Private Tutoring in Turkey: An Analysis of Private Tutoring Participation and Spending

  •  Mustafa Özdere    


This article explores the process, reasons, and determinants of private tutoring as perceived by the high school students in Şanlıurfa, Turkey. This is a survey study and the quantitative data for the study was collected with a questionnaire from 1329 high school students during the spring semester in 2019. According to the findings, almost half of the participants reported having received private tutoring at private teaching institutions in the last year. The most popular subjects for private tutoring were math, science, and Turkish. Exam-focused learning, poor classroom teaching were reported as the most important reasons behind receiving private tutoring. The individuals who referred most of the participants to private tutoring were the parents. Besides, it was determined that as age, grade, father and mother’s education level, level of income, and parents’ belief in the need for education increases, the likelihood of receiving private tutoring increases; as satisfaction level with the school decreases, students are more likely to participate in private tutoring. Also, it was found out that female students spent on private tutoring more than male students. It is concluded that the demand for private tutoring in Turkey is high, and this may be due to the university entrance system based on high-stakes testing.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1927-5250
  • ISSN(Online): 1927-5269
  • Started: 2012
  • Frequency: bimonthly

Journal Metrics

Google-based Impact Factor (2021): 1.93

h-index (July 2022): 48

i10-index (July 2022): 317

h5-index (2017-2021): 31

h5-median (2017-2021): 38

Learn more