Trends of Energy and Macronutrients Intakes in Jordan as Obtained by Household Expenditure and Income Surveys

  •  Refa’at Alkurd    
  •  Hamed R. Takruri    
  •  Amira M. Amr    


Jordan has encountered changes in demographic and food consumption patterns during the last few decades as a result of the nutrition transition and westernized food habits. This paper aims to evaluate the trends in energy and macronutrient intakes in Jordan based on the data of Jordan Household Expenditure and Income Surveys (JHEIS) 1992-2010. The amounts of consumed food items were analyzed to estimate the intakes of energy and macronutrients for different governorates using (Food Processor SQL Nutrition and Fitness Software, 2010). The average estimated annual per capita intake (kg) for different food groups in the 2010 survey was the lowest since 1992 for legumes and oils and fats, whereas it was the highest for dairy products and eggs. The 2010 percentage of energy contribution of the food groups was the highest for meat and poultry, fish, and dairy products and eggs; whereas it was the lowest for grains, legumes, and fruits and vegetables. Additionally, there was a trend of increased energy intake in 2010 in comparison with previous JHEIS data. Energy intake of Jordanians has increased in 2010 as compared with average energy intake obtained in previous JHEIS surveys since 1992. In addition, the consumption of foods of animal-origin was increased, whereas the consumption of foods of plant-origin was decreased.

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