Effects of Modality and Redundancy Principles on the Learning and Attitude of a Computer-Based Music Theory Lesson among Jordanian Primary Pupils

  •  Osamah ALdalalah    
  •  Soon Fook Fong    


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of modality and redundancy principles on the attitude and learning of music theory among primary pupils of different aptitudes in Jordan. The lesson of music theory was developed in three different modes, audio and image (AI), text with image (TI) and audio with image and text (AIT). The study sample consisted of 405 third-grade pupils. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) and Post hoc were carried out to examine the main effects as well as the interaction effects of the independent variables on the dependent variables. The findings of this study showed that pupils using the AI mode performed significantly better than those in the TI mode. Pupils using the TI mode did not perform significantly better than those in the AIT mode. There were no significant differences in the preference or dislikes towards the three modes of courseware. Overall, the modality and redundancy principles need to be considered in the design and development of music theory learning so as to promote better learning.

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