Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

  •  Aqeel Khan    
  •  Roslee Ahmad    
  •  Abdul Hamdan    
  •  Mohamed Mustaffa    


Current study examines the predictors’ of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results showed authoritative parenting styles were mostly used by the parents of their special education students. Significant relationships were existed in parenting styles, educational encouragement and academic achievement among special educational students. Educational encouragement from mother, father, sibling and friends, ethnicity and gender were found to be significant predictors for academic achievement. Findings of current research suggested parenting styles and educational encouragement contribute to special education student’s academic achievement. The results of the current study provide the insight for the educators, teachers and parents dealing with special education adolescents.

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