Space-time Connections With Inertial Masses of Ordinary and Novel Particles and Deducing Some Limiting Velocities From Maximal Particle Velocities

  •  Josip Soln    


The increasing number of physical phenomena, such as the Dark Matter, as well as the difficulties to understand the
enormous distances in the Universe, encourages one to formulate matter description that goes beyond the Standard Model.
Here we present the description of ordinary and novel (some as Dark Matter) particles through the bicubic equation
limiting velocity solutions, globally denoted as, c1, c2 and c3, (primary, secondary and tertiary). These solutions depend
on the congruent parameter z = 3

3mv2/2E which connect them to m, v, and E , respectively being particle mass,
velocity and energy. When the bicubic equation discriminant D and z satisfy D ≤ 0, z2 ≤ 1, the limiting velocities
describe ordinary particles (electron, neutrino, etc.) and when D ⪰ 0, z2 ⪰ 1 limiting velocities describe the novel (some
as Dark Matter), yet to be directly observed particles. At z = 1 ordinary particles with c1, c2 and c3 (primary, secondary
and tertiary) transit from, z2 ≤ 1 into novel (some as Dark Matter) patrticles, z2 ⪰ 1 with the same values at z = 1 for
novel particle limiting velocities Rc1, Rc2 and c3 (primary, secondary and tertiary).The ordinary tertiary particle limiting
velocity c3 and novel primary plus secondary particle limiting velocities Rc1 and Rc2 are convenient to be deduced from
maximum particle velocities. The velocity of the neutrino with v = c is a good example for c3 = c,while, with the
assumption that a novel particle maximum velocity is, say, v = c•, which leads to Rc1 and Rc2 = c• . Hopefully, it
may turn out that also c• = c. An example of a lethargic low energy novel particle appears to be a good candidate for
gravitational Dark Matter particle.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1916-9639
  • ISSN(Online): 1916-9647
  • Started: 2009
  • Frequency: semiannual

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