Growth and Yield Losses of Roundup Ready Soybean as Influenced by Micro-rates of 2,4-D
- Ivan Cuvaca
- Stevan Knezevic
- Jon Scott
- O. Adewale Osipitan
AbstractWidespread resistance to glyphosate has made weed control very challenging. In response, new approaches to managing resistant biotypes such as the Enlist E3TM have been developed. This technology allows in-crop use of 2,4-D but there is fear associated with unintentional application of the herbicide (e.g. direct application, tank contamination, or spray drift) to sensitive crops. A study was conducted to evaluate Roundup Ready (RR) soybean growth and yield losses as influenced by 2,4-D [six micro rates of 1/5, 1/10, 1/50, 1/100, 1/500 and 1/1000 of the 1,120 g ae ha-1 label recommended dose, and a check with no herbicide applied] applied at V2, R1 and R2 growth stages. In general, RR soybean was more sensitive to 2,4-D at R1 than V2 and R2. The highest 2,4-D rate, 1/5 of the label recommended rate, caused 51% soybean injury symptom, 13 d canopy closure delay, 41.2% plant height reduction, and 68.9% yield loss at R1. Based on effective dose (ED) estimates, 37.7 g ae ha-1 2,4-D caused 5% yield loss (0.23 Mg ha-1) at R1 compared with a 2.5- and 2.0-fold higher dose at V2 and R2, respectively. With respect to number of days to canopy closure, both reproductive stages (R1 and R2) were equally less sensitive to 2,4-D than the vegetative one (V2) as the plants had already achieved maximum growth recorded. On the other hand, ED estimates for plant height have shown that both V2 and R2 were equally more sensitive to 2,4-D than R1. Altogether, these results clearly indicated that RR soybean growth and yield losses were significantly influenced by 2,4-D.
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- Joan LeeEditorial Assistant