Some Evidence of South European Contacts of the Middle Volga and Kama in the Material Culture of Toretskoe Urban Settlement

  •  Svetlana I. Valiulina    


The relevance of the article is determined by insufficient study of the late Middle Ages material culture in the Volga-Kama region and its inclusiveness in Eurasia’s culture development. The purpose of this article is to present a whole attribution and historical interpretation of the belt set and an accessories element or a detail of a musical instrument. A complex approach, consisting of comparative-typological and historical-geographical methods is used in the work. The alloy’s nature of the non-ferrous metal ware has been identified by a scanning electronic microscope/ X-ray diffraction. The material under consideration reveals a wide geography of similarities within Eurasia that in many cases is caused by the process of intercultural interaction in the late Middle Ages. The study presents technological characteristics of the ware, their origin and possible ways of entering the Volga-Kama region have been determined and the dating has been specified. This article should be of interest to archaeologists and historians of international relations and the late Middle Ages material culture during their research and educational process.

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