Brunei Lower Secondary Students’ Engagement in School and Beliefs about the Self under the Ongoing SPN21 Curriculum Reforms: Implications for Educational and Counseling Interventions

  •  Rohani Matzin    
  •  Rosmawijah Jawawi    
  •  Jainatul Halida Jaidin    
  •  Masitah Shahrill    
  •  Mar Aswandi Mahadi    


The school involvement of 171 Brunei lower secondary school students (140 females) was surveyed in terms of their ongoing engagement, reaction to challenges, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy in the context of the current SPN21 curriculum. Data were collected using the Research Assessment Package for Schools – Students in Middle schools version, RAPS-SM (Institute for Research and Reform in Education, 1998). Both genders need assistance in improving their school engagement strategies. This is especially important now as Brunei emphasizes inclusive education and the SPN21 curriculum. The absence of negative emotional reactions to challenging school problems suggested that the participants adjusted successfully after transiting from primary school to secondary level. Consistent with findings in previous studies, females asserted that they were more competent and autonomous in school work than males. Further mixed-methods research involving a bigger number of schools was recommended to provide more insights on the issue.

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