Geographical Attributes, Distribution, and Determinants of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Midwestern Nepal

  •  Rupa Singh    
  •  Constanza Isabel Bravo Cabrera    
  •  Rajeev Kumar Singh    


The study investigated the geographical attributes, distribution, and determinants of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in Nepal to comprehend the underlying factors contributing to its high prevalence in the region. Conducted in the Panchapuri municipality of midwestern Nepal, this cross-sectional study surveyed 103 married women aged 20–49 years using a semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were randomly selected from four health facility catchment areas in equal proportions. Descriptive statistics presented the data while binary logistic regression models assessed factors associated with POP. Participant allocations were mapped using ArcGIS, with shapefiles obtained from official sources. The study revealed a POP prevalence of 37.9%, with housewives exhibiting a significant association compared to businesswomen (AOR: 5.291; 95% CI: 1.046, 26.775). Constipation during pregnancy was significantly associated with POP (AOR: 9.104; 95% CI: 2.210, 37.501), while multipara women with a parity of four or more were 7.8 times more likely to have POP. Interestingly, geographical attributes like altitude, slope, and climate showed no association with POP. The findings underscore the significant association of POP with factors such as housewives, pregnancy-related constipation, and multiparity. Addressing these determinants through targeted research is vital in alleviating the burden of POP. This study emphasizes the urgent need for interventions, policies, and healthcare support, particularly focusing on maternal health and occupational well-being among rural housewives in Nepal.

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