Essential Oil Variation and Trace Metals Content in Garden Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) Grown at Different Environmental Conditions

  •  Mohammad Abu Darwish    


This study was conducted to determine the essential oil variation and concentrations of certain trace metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn, Pb, Cd) in the sage plant (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in their different geographic natural environment. The samples of Salvia officinalis were collected from Jeresh and Ajloune, Ma’an and Tafilah, and Amman located in their natural original regions in the north, south, and middle locations of Jordan, respectively. The results showed a wide variation of essential oil contents among S. officinalisgrown in different variable natural environment. The range varied from 0.87% in Amman to 2.8% in Jarash. In general, the oil content in S. officinalis grown in the north regions was higher than recorded in the middle and south regions.The essential oil content in S. officinalis grown in Jarash and Ma'an were higher than recoded in other investigated groth regions. Trace metal concentrations in all investigated samples were varied.The most toxic trace metals Co, Pb, and Cd were not detectable in all studied samples. Fe metal recorded the highest concentration which varied from 834.5 mg/kg in Ajloun to 1743 mg/kg in Ma’an. Cu recoded the lowest mean levels among all detected metals and varied from 6.60 mg/kg in Amman to 9.25 mg/kg in Ajloune .The highest mean levels of Mn were recorded in the southern regions in Tafilah and Ma'an (53.7 and 50.4 mg/kg, respectively), while the lowest was recorded in the middle region in Amman (26.10 mg/kg). Zn concentration varied from 27.80 mg/kg in Ma'an to 42.72 mg/kg in Tafillah. All of detected metals were within the range of permissible limit for medicinal plants and lower than that detected in S. officinalis originated from other local and global habitats. The essential oil and trace metals contents in S. officinalis were mainly affected by variable natural climatic conditions. Moreover, the current study showed that S. officinalis grown in some locations of Jordan are characterized by low trace metals contents and can safely be used for pharmaceutical and edible purposes without any hazardous effect on human health.

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