Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Fennel Seed (Foeniculum vulgare)

  •  Kaveh Mollazade    
  •  Hojat Ahmadi    
  •  Jalal Khorshidi    
  •  Seyed Saeid mohtasebi    
  •  Ali Rajabipour    


Determination of physical and mechanical properties of seeds and agricultural products is important in the design of
harvesting, handling, and processing equipment. Some physical and mechanical properties of fennel seed were
determined as a function of moisture content in the range of 7.78–21.67% d.b. The average length, width and thickness
were 58.87, 18.96 and 15.64 mm, at a moisture content of 7.78 %d.b., respectively. In the moisture range from 7.78% to
21.67% d.b., studies on rewetted fennel seed showed that the thousand seed weight increased from 5.5 to 9.2 g, the
porosity from 55.91% to 62.21%, the static and dynamic angle of repose from 37.6 to 46.6 and 41 to 53.3, respectively,
the coefficient of friction on glass, plywood, and galvanized iron sheet surfaces from 0.55 to 0.74, 0.45 to 0.63, and 0.43
to 0.66, respectively, and deformation on width section increased from 1.68 to 1.86 mm. The bulk density decreased
from 413.51 to 352.39 kg m-3 and rupture force on both seed length and width sections decreased from 198.93 to 78.68
N, and 600.65 to 186.44 N, respectively, with moisture content in the moisture range of 7.78 to 21.67% d.b. But there
was not regular trend for sphericity, true density, and deformation on length section with increasing the moisture

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