Metabolic Resistance in the Fall Armyworm: An Overview

  •  Indyra F. Carvalho    
  •  Larissa L. Erdmann    
  •  Larissa L. Machado    
  •  Ana Paula S. A. Rosa    
  •  Moisés J. Zotti    
  •  Camila G. Neitzke    


The Fall Armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith, 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is one of the most important pests in the American continent and has recently become an invasive species in Africa. It’s main form of control is through the use of insecticides, however during the last 40 years, due to continuous spraying and high doses used along with FAW’s high adaptative capacity, developed resistance to different classes of chemical insecticides. One of the main mechanisms enabling resistance in the FAW is by detoxification enzymes or so-called metabolic resistance. P450s, Carboxylesterases and Glutathione-S-Transferases are the main families of enzymes believed to mediate the detoxification process. These enzymes in the FAW, although widely studied, have been difficult to generalize into patterns. This happens mainly because FAW populations can have high genetic variability within the species, as they have different biotypes meaning that they can be morphologically identical but physiologically different and consequently, enzymatic responses to toxic compounds can also differ. There are also differences due to the diversity of biomes in which S. frugiperda is found, which due to adaptations to different host plants and other abiotic factors, it’s hard to predict enzymatic responses in insecticide resistance. In this context we aimed to review the literature regarding these three main enzymes families involved in metabolic resistance in S. frugiperda, by cataloguing, analysing and summarizing these studies.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.