Severity of Infestation Levels of Tunga Penetrans in Central, Kenya: A Bayesian Cumulative Logit Model

  •  Stephen M. Mbunzi    
  •  Joseph K. Mungatu    
  •  Anthony G. Waititu    
  •  Samuel M. Mwalili    
  •  Kenneth O. Ogila    
  •  Thomas N. O. Achia    
  •  Daniel Nthiwa    


Tungiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that significantly affects communities, especially in developing countries. This study developed a Bayesian severity of the jigger infestation model and its spatial counterpart. Putative determinants leading to different levels of infestation and the most affected areas were to be identified through the model. We collected data through a cross-sectional study with a multi-stage sampling design. A structured questionnaire was administered in each household to capture variables used for modelling jigger infestations. The severity of jigger infestation categorized for each individual was modelled against all the other predictor variables. It was also integrated with spatial data to determine the spatial distribution pattern of jigger infestation. A Bayesian multinomial logistic regression model was used to assess the association between various predictors and different infestation levels. Specifically, an ordered Bayesian Severity Hierarchical (OBSH) categorical model was obtained. This model was categorical based on the Counties (1-Nyeri, 2-Murang'a and 3-Kiambu). Results from this model showed that for a one-unit decrease in the poverty index at level 1 (individuals categorized as poor) there was about a 69% increase in the severity of jigger infestation. A one-unit increase in the percentage of clay in the soil increased the odds ratio of the severity of jigger infestation by a factor of 11.21 while a high percentage of nitrogen in the soil lowered the severity of infestation.  Severity of jigger infestation reduced from the baseline, Nyeri County to Kiambu County. It also increased with increasing altitude due to a decrease in nitrogen levels.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1927-7032
  • ISSN(Online): 1927-7040
  • Started: 2012
  • Frequency: bimonthly

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