School Factors & Cumulative Inequality: A Comparative Study of Elementary Education in Pakistan

  •  Afia Kanwal    


Stratification is deeply rooted in the networks of educational institutes at both macro and micro level. It leads to difference in accumulation of educational capital. Since the role of equal primary education in development cannot be denied; one of the key skills for success is the “linguistic key”; the English language skill. This paper aims to highlight aspects that lead to disparity among educational institutes and explore differences among Socioeconomically Divided School Systems at elementary level. Specifically this work examines trends in school factors to compare how these factors accumulate to a specific kind of linguistic exposure across socioeconomically divided school systems in Pakistan. In this ethnographic study, cumulative inequality theory of advantage and disadvantage is used as a theoretical framework and data is gathered from 30 elementary schools in Rawalpindi through demographics, teacher interviews and test scores. The results of the research show which factors play a significant role in cumulative advantage or disadvantage. The results are significant for policy makers, educationists, teachers and the larger society.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1923-869X
  • ISSN(Online): 1923-8703
  • Started: 2011
  • Frequency: bimonthly

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