Gender Stratification by Variants /n/ and /ɽ̃/ in Lahore city: The Labovian Paradigm

  •  Anila Akbar    
  •  Zarmina Khan    
  •  Saadia Ishfaq    


The study is an investigation of language within the social context of the community in which it is spoken, carried out in 2019 in a region with a particular linguistic background, Lahore, the capital of Punjab, Pakistan. This research investigates the stratification of nasal variants /n/ and /ɳ/ in the Lahore city, relating parameter of gender. This research was intended to determine the male and female use of the nasal variants /n/ and /ɳ/, indicates that gender-based differences in male/female linguistic behavior in the Lahore speech community. A structured interview was administered in order to examine this issue of social stratification by language. In this regard, this study becomes a Labovian methodological replica in the present context. The results show several statistically significant differences in linguistic usage among different groups of people residing in Lahore city. This research was intended to determine whether men and women were different with respect to the use of nasal variants /n/ and /ɳ/. Moreover, an examination of the social class and regionality (urban/rural) is also under consideration in the present research.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1923-869X
  • ISSN(Online): 1923-8703
  • Started: 2011
  • Frequency: bimonthly

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