Gender Exclusion in Textbooks: A Comparative Study of Female Representation in Provincial ELT Textbooks of Pakistan

  •  Sajid Waqar    
  •  Mamuna Ghani    


The focus of this study was female gender representation in secondary level ELT textbooks published by four different textbook boards of Pakistan, namely Baluchistan Textbook Board, Sindh Textbook Board, Khyber Pakhtunkhwah Textbook Board and Punjab Textbook Board. It targeted a comprehensive comparison between the female gender images as represented in four sets of textbooks and gender conceptions of their respective female readers. To achieve the objectives, the study was divided into two parts: In part 1, the textbooks by four state-run textbook boards were analyzed and in part 2, their respective female readers’ gender conceptions were collected and analyzed. The study employed multi-dimensional analytical tools like manifest, latent analysis and Fairclough (2001) CDA model for interpretation and explanation of textbook discourse. The study revealed a low representation share of female gender in four sets of textbooks. It brought out that female readership had stereotype conceptions regarding the attributes, professions and activities as appropriate for the female gender. It was also found that Sindh and Punjab Textbook Boards had improved female gender representation than other provincial textbook boards. The quantitative findings of part 2 proposed that textbooks could play a vital part in modeling gender conceptions of readership as Sindh and Punjab Textbook Boards’ female readership showed better gender conceptions. The study recommended a gender-based test of the textbooks at national level prior to publication to ensure gender equality as directed in National Curriculum.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
  • ISSN(Print): 1923-869X
  • ISSN(Online): 1923-8703
  • Started: 2011
  • Frequency: bimonthly

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