Intra-SADC Foreign Direct Investment: A Gravity Approach to South Africa Outward Investment

  •  Onelie Nkuna    


This paper looks at intra-SADC FDI, focusing at South Africa outward FDI into SADC countries. LSDV and GMM estimation techniques are applied in a gravity model for the period 1999 to 2010. The study finds strong evidence that intra-trade and intra-FDI are negatively related, suggestive of a substitutive relationship between intra-SADC trade and intra-SADC FDI. The study also reveals that capital account openness, bilateral investment treaties, and labour availability are key in promoting intra-SADC FDI flows. Further, the study finds evidence that agglomeration effects are important for South African investors into SADC despite the fact that they are operating in a common region. The study also finds that FDI from developed countries complement with FDI from South Africa.


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