Functional Status Assessment of COPD Based on Ability to Perform Daily Living Activities: A Systematic Review of Paper and Pencil Instruments

  •  Fateme Monjazebi    
  •  Asghar Dalvandi    
  •  Abbas Ebadi    
  •  Hamid Reza Khankeh    
  •  Mehdi Rahgozar    
  •  Jörg Richter    


CONTEXT: Activity of daily living (ADL) is an important predictor of mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Increasing ADL is important in patients with COPD and assessment of ADL is one of the best ways to evaluate the status of COPD patients.

OBJECTIVES: The objective of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the psychometric properties of paper and pencil instruments measuring ADL in patients with COPD.

DATA SOURCES: English papers published from 1980 to 2014 regarding ADL in patients with COPD were searched in  Web of Science, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Cochrane, PubMed, ProQuest, and CINAHL databases using the following keywords: “COPD”, “ADL”, “activities of daily living”, “daily activities”, “instrument”, “questionnaire”, “paper-and-pencil instruments”, and “measure”. Following the Internet search, manual search was also done to find article references.

STUDY SELECTION: A total of 186 articles were found. Of those, 31 met the inclusion criteria. Full texts of articles meeting the inclusion criteria were studied. Consensus-based standards for the selection of health measurement instruments"(COSMIN) were used to assess the quality of the studies.

DATA EXTRACTION: Data extraction form based on research aims developed by researchers and psychometric experts, with 17 questions was used.

RESULTS: In these articles, 14 pen and paper instruments were identified for examining ADL in patients with COPD; of which, 4 dealt directly with ADL while 9 assessed other criteria i.e. dyspnea as ADL indicator. The majority of instruments only dealt with two main dimensions of ADL: Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL) and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL), and did not consider Advanced Activities of Daily Living (AADL), which is influenced by cultural and motivational factors.

CONCLUSION: Despite several ADL instruments identified, complete psychometric processes have only been done in a few of them. Selection of the appropriate instrument should focus on the aim of the study and the target construct.

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