Comparison of Phenotypic Characteristics and Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns of Clinical Escherichia coli Collected From Two Unrelated Geographical Areas

  •  Mutasim Ibrahim    
  •  Naser Bilal    
  •  Mohamed Hamid    


Background: Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic Escherichia coli is an increasing problem especially in developing countries.

Aims: To compare between resistance patterns of E. coli collected from two unrelated geographical areas. Methods: A descriptive comparative study was conducted between May 2010 and August 2011. E. coli (n= 402) collected from hospitals in Khartoum state, Sudan and in Aseer region, Saudi Arabia were studied. Identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates were performed following standard methods. Multi-drug resistance (MDR) was defined as non-susceptibility to ? three antimicrobials.

Results: Of the 402 E. coli isolates studied, MDR patterns were significantly higher among isolates from Sudan than Saudi Arabia [92.2% (214/232) vs. 70.6% (120/170)] (p = 0.000). The resistance rates of E. coli isolates were recorded as follows (Sudan and Saudi Arabia): High to moderate resistance to amoxicillin (97.7% and 94.2%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (88.3% and 82.5%), tetracycline (77.1% and 74.2%), amoxicillin- clavulanic acid (51.4% and 70%), ceftriaxone (64% and 52.4%) and ciprofloxacin (58.4% and 40%). Low resistance was to ceftazidime (35% and 20%), gentamicin (35% and 17.5%) and nitrofurantoin (22.4% and 11.7%). Resistance to amikacin was uncommon (1.9% and 5%). Significant differences (p < 0.05) in resistance rates of isolates between both countries in term to patient's gender and age. The most frequent MDR phenotypes among isolates were to 7(15.9%) in Khartoum state and to 3(20.8%) in Aseer region.

Conclusions: Variation and emerging of antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic E. coli isolates was observed in both regions. Continuous monitoring of resistance profiles, locally and international surveillance programs are required.

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