A Systematic Review of the Prevalence and Risk Factors of Depression among Iranian Adolescents

  •  Homeira Sajjadi    
  •  Seyed Hossein Mohaqeqi Kamal    
  •  Hasan Rafiey    
  •  Meroe Vameghi    
  •  Ameneh Setareh Forouzan    
  •  Masoomeh Rezaei    


Depression is the most common mood and psychiatric disorder. The aim of this comprehensive study was to provide a complete picture of the prevalence and risk factors of depression. The study employed a systematic review methodology, searching Iranian and international databases. After screening and evaluating the articles, a synthesis of 53 articles was accumulated. A meta-analysis of the studies showed that the prevalence of children and adolescent depression was 43.55% using the BDI, 15.87 % using SCL-90, and 13.05% using CDI. Also, the prevalence of depression was higher among girls than boys based on the BDI and CDI results. The most important factors contributing to depression were: the female sex, poor inter-parental relationship, poor adolescent-parent relationship, low socio-economic status (SES), state of parenting styles, low level of parental education, and poor academic performance. The comparatively high prevalence of depression among Iranian adolescents call for further investigation and measures.

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