Depressive Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density among Police Officers in a Northeastern US City

  •  Luenda Charles    
  •  Desta Fekedulegn    
  •  Diane B. Miller    
  •  Jean Wactawski-Wende    
  •  John M. Violanti    
  •  Michael E. Andrew    
  •  Cecil M. Burchfiel    


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. BMD of total hip, femoral neck, anterio-posterior (AP) spine, wrist, and total body were measured by DXA using standardized procedures. Mean levels of BMD across gender-specific tertiles of CES-D score were obtained using ANOVA and ANCOVA. Results: Participants included 97 police officers (41 women; 29-64 years). Depressive symptoms were not associated with BMD at any site among men. However among women, mean BMD values decreased across increasing (worsening) tertiles of CES-D for the AP spine (low CES-D=1.22 ± 0.04; medium CES-D=1.05±0.04; high CES-D=1.03±0.04 g/cm2; p=0.035) and for the whole body (low=1.26±0.03; medium=1.20±0.03; high=1.11±0.03 g/cm2; p=0.018) after adjustment. Conclusions: Higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower BMD among female but not male officers.

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