Burden and Factors Associated with Renal Dysfunction among People Living with HIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

  •  Emilia V. Kitambala    
  •  Davis Amani    
  •  Belinda J. Njiro    
  •  Jackline Ngowi    
  •  Doreen Mloka    
  •  Yohana Mashalla    
  •  Bruno F. Sunguya    


Renal diseases pose a significant burden of morbidity and mortality, particularly among People Living with HIV (PLHIV). The risks are further compounded by drug-induced renal toxicity, and the growing burden of hypertension, diabetes, and Hepatitis C infections. This study assessed the magnitude and factors associated with renal dysfunction among PLHIV attending clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted between January and March 2022 among 331 PLHIV recruited through a multistage sampling. Renal disease was determined through urine analysis and clinical, demographic, and disease-specific data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analysis, performed in SPSS version 25, involved descriptive analysis, univariate, and multivariable logistic regression to determine the magnitude and predictors of renal dysfunction among PLHIV. Renal dysfunction was observed in 37 (11.1%) participants. Patients with advanced age were 3.89 times more likely to have renal dysfunction (95% CI: 1.56 – 9.72, p = 0.004) compared to lower age groups. No statistically significant association was found between renal dysfunction and sex, duration from diagnosis of HIV and on ART, ART-based regimen, HIV viral load, hypertension, or diabetes mellitus. More than one in ten PLHIV in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, presented with signs of renal dysfunctions, which was more significant among patients aged 55 and older. Routine screening for renal diseases among PLHIV, especially for patients with advanced age is essential to prevent and control for progression to renal failure.

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