Prevalence of Candida Species Isolates in Patients with Urinary Tract Infection in Madinah, Saudi Arabia

  •  Hamza M. A. Eid    
  •  Yahya A. Almutawif    


INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) is considered one of the most prevalent infections that may lead to many renal complications or dysfunctions. They are responsible for almost 10% of all infections in Saudi Arabia, which makes them the second most common cause of emergency department admission. Bacteria are the most common pathogens associated with UTIs. Nevertheless, UTIs caused by fungi have also been reported. Among fungal infections, Candida spp. has been identified as the primary cause of UTI-related mycoses.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of Candida species isolated from adult patients in Madinah, Saudi Arabia.

MATERIALS & METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using data collected from patients who visited King Fahad General Hospital in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. A total of 16803 urine bacterial cultures data were collected from January 2019 to October 2021.

RESULTS: Among the 4281 positive urine cultures, 92% (n = 3937) showed bacterial growth, while 8% (n = 344) exhibited fungal growth. Female patients had a slightly higher percentage of fungal-positive cases (53%, n = 181) compared to males (47%, n = 163). Among different nationalities, Saudi citizens had the highest prevalence of positive fungal samples (64%, n = 220). Most positive cases (49%, n = 167) were isolated in 2019, with a decline in subsequent years. Non-Candida albicans spp. (86.3%, n = 297) were the most common fungal species, followed by Candida albicans (13.7%, n = 47).

CONCLUSION: Despite considering bacterial UTIs to be more prevalent than UTI-related mycoses, it remains crucial to accurately identify the causative agent for proper diagnosis and treatment. UTI-related mycosis caused by non-Candida albicans spp. has significantly increased compared to Candida albicans. Thus, monitoring these trends over time can provide valuable insights for developing preventive strategies and optimizing treatment approaches.

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