Refractive Errors and Binocular Vision Anomalies among Young University Students

  •  Waleed M. Alghamdi    
  •  Muhammed S. Alluwimi    
  •  Sulaiman A. Aldakhil    
  •  Majid A. Moafa    
  •  Mansour A. Alghamdi    


It has been reported that refractive errors (RE) and binocular vision (BV) anomalies are common among university students. In this study we aimed to assess RE and BV status among university students in Saudi Arabia, and its relation to the academic performance. We recruited 109 participants (aged from 18 to 21 years). Visual acuity (VA) and objective refraction were used to assess the refractive status. Cover test, near-point convergence (NPC) and stereopsis tests were used to assess the BV status. Convergence insufficiency symptom survey (CISS) was applied to quantify near-work related symptoms. Mann-Whitney U test (p value was set as p < 0.05) was used to compare VA, CISS, NPC and the academic performance between the groups who had heterophoria versus orthophoria. We found that there was only 38% emmetrope, while the percentage of heterophoria was 45.8%. The academic performance was not statistically different among the two groups, but CISS and stereopsis scores were significantly different (p < 0.03). We concluded that RE and BV anomalies were common among university students in Saudi Arabia, but did not affect the academic performance. More studies are warranted to understand the low scores of CISS and stereoacuity, and their association with RE and BV anomalies.

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