Estimating 24 Hour Sodium Urine from Spot Urine: A Correlation Model Among Aged 25-64 in Indonesia

  •  Ekowati Rahajeng    
  •  Nunik Kusumawardani    
  •  Rika Rachmawati    
  •  Fitrah Ernawati    


INTRODUCTION: Excess salt intake is known to raise blood pressure and turn increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Data and information on sodium consumption in Indonesia based is limited, while examination method using 24-hour urine examination is a complex method to apply in population based survey. Objective: to estimate value of spot urinary excretion against 24-hour urine values ​​and correction factors.

METHOD: Validation was carried out through 24-hour urine and spot urine examination, in 423 individual aged 25-65 years in t Kebun Kelapa Village, Bogor City, Indonesia in 2017. Urine sodium examination method was carried out by laboratory examination inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Accuracy and precision are valued by paired test correlations and mean differences. The coefficient of determination (R Square) of is calculated for sodium intake estimation and correction factors.

RESULTS: The morning value of sodium spot urine has better precision and a stronger correlation with the 24-hour sodium urine than the afternoon spot urine. The difference in average morning sodium urine with 24-hour urine sodium according to age and sex was not significantly different (t test 0.30 and p = 0.77), had a positive and moderate correlation (paired r = 0.50 and p = 0.00). The average difference between the estimated evening urine sodium spot was different (t test = 7.32 and p = 0.00), and the correlation was very weak (r = 0.25; p = 0.00).

CONCLUSION: The urine content / sodium spot level was accurate to estimate urine sodium value / content 24 hours.

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