The Determinants of Gender Wage Discrimination in Pakistan: Econometric Evidence from Punjab Province

  •  Ghulam Yasin    
  •  Imran Chaudhry    
  •  Saima Afzal    


The development of labor sector has always been on the priority agenda of every country in the world. Since gender discrimination can be categorized in various forms across countries, but this paper concentrates on the gender employment positions and wage differentials in Pakistan. The major objective of this paper is to analyze the determinants of gender wage discrimination in Pakistan using descriptive and regression analysis based on the cross-sectional data of Pakistan labor force survey.  It is concluded that illiteracy, poor and low levels of education as well as low vocational, technical, and professional competence are currently important facets of the labor market participants in Pakistan. The results of empirical analysis show that dissimilarity in attainment of jobs is a remarkable phenomenon between males and females. It is also proved that some socio-economic and cultural constraints also hinder the participation of females. Finally the results show that women are not different in their productivity from men and if discrimination does not occur, women can earn more as compared to men in some cases. The governments should take some concrete steps for equitable employment opportunities, improving institutions and infrastructure, provision of quality education and proper training, gender participation in decision-making and knowledge-based economy

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