The Civil-Military Integration and the Development of Education System in Defense Institutions: Indonesia’s Case

  •  Muradi Muradi    


There are demands for defense educational institution to contribute in general knowledge, not only in the substance of war and defense science. It is also related to current threat against a country that is no longer just conventional, but also non-conventional threats that cover dynamics in civil society. This paper will discuss civil-military integration (CMI) in the development of education in military and defense institutions in Indonesia. It will also offer five levels of CMI in education. Each level has different CMI weights in education. In addition, this paper argues that CMI as part of Civil-Military Relations (CMR) provides a perspective that the development of education in military and defense institution can not simply adopt the general education system and pattern in civil institutions, but require the integration of mutually reinforcing and confirms the characteristics and patterns of education in professional military institution without losing the distinctiveness of education in the defense institution.

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