A Delphi Study to Determine Innovation Orientation Survey Items for Undergraduates in Malaysian Public University

  •  Norfarah Nordin    
  •  Ahmad Nurulazam Md. Zain    
  •  Mohd Ali Samsudin    


This research aims to produce innovation orientation survey items for quantitative research use in the context of undergraduates in Malaysia. The hypothesized model of innovation orientation consists of creativity, innovation motivation, entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial self-efficacy constructs. These five constructs was established employing comprehensive literature reviews. 24 items was adapted and three rounds of Delphi study were conducted to validate them. Participants were 20 Malaysian higher education institutions’ academicians. The initial 24 items to measure the five constructs went through refinement and contextualization to conceive innovation orientation for undergraduates’ survey. Consensus achieved after three rounds of Delphi study. The qualitative comments written by the participants was collected, coded and changes made were translated into the 24 items until the quantitative result for all items received moderate and high level of agreement.

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