Conceptualizing Framework for Women Empowerment in Indonesia: Integrating the Role of Media, Interpersonal Communication, Cosmopolite, Extension Agent and Culture as Predictors Variables

  •  Che Su Mustaffa    
  •  Fauziah Asyiek    


Over the last several decades, considerable efforts have been made by the Indonesian government to provide women farmers and women on the farm with efficient, effective, and appropriate technology, training and information. The positive effects are beginning to show in agricultural production statistics and indices of family welfare fall short of what is needed at a time when public sector investments in agricultural research and extension are under pressure, when ever-greater demands are being placed on rural women in the face of rapid social transformation, and in an increasing number of areas, when evidence of environment degradation is mounting. Thus, this paper discusses the role of social system, organization support, communication behavior (cosmopolitan, interpersonal communication, media) and agents of change, and proposed a conceptual framework for future study. Based on the explanation given, this paper therefore focuses on the aspects of communication behavior and empowerment of women farmers that are related to some variables which are the characteristics of women farmers, social system, the availability of supporting organizations for agricultural business and the performance of the empowerment of womenfarmers in agribusiness regarding their ability to make decisions and psychological empowerment in agricultural business.

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