The Genesis of Kashmir Dispute

  •  Hau Khan Sum    
  •  Ravichandran Moorthy    
  •  Guido Benny    


In Indo-Pakistan relations, conflict, rivalry and hostility started immediately after their independence in 1947 followed by the first Indo-Pakistan war. Their bilateral relations have always been jeopardized by the Kashmir issue. They fought three conventional wars and faced several crises during the pre-nuclear and nuclear periods over the question of Kashmir. Both states attempted to acquire nuclear weapons with the primary aims of balancing each other and deterring wars. As a result, the possession of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan have in turn generated arms races, crises, rivalries and increased their hostile relations. Both countries have been trying to find mutually acceptable solution to the question of Kashmir issue since the time of its inception. In addition to the third party interventions, a number of bilateral negotiations at different levels have been initiated by the two countries to settle the protracted issue. This article provides critical examination on the genesis of this conflict. The article is divided into sections discussing the Hindu-Muslin antagonism, the formation of the Jammu-Kashmir state, the partition of 1948, accession of Kashmir to India and the UN intervention into this territorial dispute. The article employs a qualitative research methodology, primarily relying on the analysis of printed and written materials such as books, academic journals, magazines and newspapers. The primary findings suggest that the failure of bilateral negotiations has protracted the conflict and has contributed to the deepening of mistrust between these two nuclear countries.

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